Tuesday, November 26, 2019
The 22nd Amendment Sets Presidential Term Limits
The 22nd Amendment Sets Presidential Term Limits The 22nd Amendment to the United States Constitution establishes term limits for persons elected to the office of President of the United States. It also sets additional eligibility conditions for presidents, who after assuming the office through succession, serve out the unexpired terms of their predecessors. Under the 22nd Amendment, no person may be elected president more than twice and no person who has already served or acted as president for more than two years of an unexpired term may be elected president more than once. The joint resolution proposing the 22nd Amendment was passed by Congress and sent to the states for ratification on March 24, 1947. The 22nd Amendment was ratified by the required 36 of the then-48 states on February 27, 1951. Section 1 of the 22nd Amendment states: No person shall be elected to the office of the President more than twice, and no person who has held the office of President, or acted as President, for more than two years of a term to which some other person was elected President shall be elected to the office of President more than once. But this Article shall not apply to any person holding the office of President when this Article was proposed by Congress, and shall not prevent any person who may be holding the office of President, or acting as President, during the term within which this Article becomes operative from holding the office of President or acting as President during the remainder of such term. History of the 22nd Amendment Before the adoption of the 22nd Amendment, there was no statutory limit on the number of terms a president could serve. The Constitution merely stated that the presidentÃ¢â¬â¢s term in office lasted four years. The Founding Fathers had believed that the shifting political views of the people and the Electoral College process would prevent third presidential terms. After George Washington and Thomas Jefferson chose to limit their presidencies to two terms, the two-term limit became a respected tradition- sort an unwritten rule. The two-term tradition held sway until 1940 when President Franklin D. Roosevelt chose to run for a third term. With the nation facing the Great Depression followed closely by World War II, Roosevelt was elected to not only a third but a fourth term, serving a total of 12 years in office before his death in 1945. While FDR was the only president to be elected to a third term, he was not the first to try. Both Ulysses S. Grant and Theodore Roosevelt had run unsuccessfully for third terms. In the 1946 midterm elections, just 18 months after Democrat FDR had died in office, many Republican candidates made limiting presidential tenure a large part of their campaign platforms. In the election, Republicans succeeded in winning control of both the House and Senate and immediately pushed the 22nd Amendment establishing presidential term limits to the top of the legislative agenda when the 80th Congress convened in January 1947. In less than one month- on February 6, 1947- the House of Representatives, with the support of 47 Democrats, passed a joint resolution proposing the 22nd Amendment by a vote of 285-121. After resolving differences with the HouseÃ¢â¬â¢s version, the Senate passed the amended joint resolution on March 12, 1947, by a vote of 59Ã¢â¬â23, with 16 Democrats voting in favor. The 22nd Amendment imposing presidential term limits was submitted to the states for ratification on March 24, 1947. Three years and 343 days later, on February 27, 1951, the 22nd Amendment was fully ratified and incorporated into the Constitution. The ConstitutionÃ¢â¬â¢s Framers and Presidential Term Limits The ConstitutionÃ¢â¬â¢s Framers had little to go on as they debated how long the president should be allowed to hold office. The ConstitutionÃ¢â¬â¢s predecessor, the Articles of Confederation, provided for no such office, granting Congress both legislative and executive powers instead. Their only other example of a supreme national executive- the King of England- against whom they had just revolted, was a troubling model. Some of the Framers, including Alexander Hamilton and James Madison, argued that presidents should serve for life and be appointed by Congress, rather than elected by the people. Of course, that sounded far to Ã¢â¬Å"kinglikeÃ¢â¬ for others, like VirginiaÃ¢â¬â¢s George Mason, who said it would make the American presidency an Ã¢â¬Å"elective monarchy.Ã¢â¬ Surprisingly, however, when Hamilton and MadisonÃ¢â¬â¢s proposal for lifelong, appointed presidents came to a vote, it failed by only two votes.Ã Ã With the Ã¢â¬Å"presidents-for-lifeÃ¢â¬ option off the table, the Framers debated whether presidents could be re-elected or be term-limited. Most of them opposed term limits, arguing for presidents who would be elected by Congress and could run for re-election an unlimited number of times. But that, warned Gouverneur Morris, would tempt incumbent presidents to make corrupt, secret deals with Congress in order to get re-elected. That argument led the Framers to adopt Article II of the Constitution with its complicated and still controversial Electoral College method of electing presidents with no term limits. Since the 22nd Amendment amended Article II in 1951, some politicians and constitutional scholars have argued that desperate circumstances, like the Great Depression and World War II faced by Franklin Roosevelt, warranted unlimited presidential terms. Indeed, some two-term presidents of both parties, including Ronald Reagan and Barack Obama, lamented their constitutional inability to run for third terms. 22nd Amendment Key Takeaways The 22nd Amendment establishes term limits for the President of the United StatesUnder the 22nd Amendment, no person may be elected President of the United States more than twice.The 22nd Amendment was approved by Congress on March 24, 1947, and ratified by the states on February 27, 1951. References Neale, Thomas H. (October 19, 2009). Ã¢â¬Å"Presidential Terms and Tenure: Perspectives and Proposals for Change.Ã¢â¬ Washington, D.C.: Congressional Research Service, The Library of Congress.Buckley, F. H.; Metzger, Gillian. Ã¢â¬Å"Twenty-second Amendment.Ã¢â¬ The National Constitution Center.Peabody, Bruce. Presidential Term Limit.Ã¢â¬ The Heritage Foundation. Updated by Robert Longley
Friday, November 22, 2019
North Pacific Right Whale Facts
North Pacific Right Whale Facts The North Pacific right whale is a critically endangered species. Along with the North Atlantic right whale and the southern right whale, the North Pacific right whale is one of three species of living right whales in the world. All three species of right whale are similar in appearance; their genetic pools are distinct, but they are otherwise indistinguishable. Fast Facts: North Pacific Right Whale Scientific Name: Eubalaena japonicaAverage Length: 42Ã¢â¬â52 feet Average Weight: 110,000Ã¢â¬â180,000 pounds Lifespan: 50Ã¢â¬â70 years Diet: CarnivorousRegion and Habitat: Northern Pacific oceanÃ Phylum: ChordataClass: Mammalia Order: ArtiodactylaInfraorder: CetaceaFamily: BalaenidaeConservation Status: Critically endangeredÃ Description North Pacific right whales are robust, with a thick blubber layer and a girth sometimes exceeding 60 percent of their body length. Their bodies are black with irregular patches of white, and their flippers are large, broad and blunt. Their tail flukes are very broad (up to 50 percent of their body length), black, deeply notched, and smoothly tapered. Southern right whale breaches the surface off Puerto Piramedies, Argentina. Paula Ribas / Getty Images Female right whales give birth once every 2 to 3 years, starting around age 9 or 10. The oldest known right whale was a female who lived at least 70 years. Calves are 15Ã¢â¬â20 ft (4.5Ã¢â¬â6 m) long at birth. Adult right whales range between 42Ã¢â¬â52 ft (13Ã¢â¬â16 m) in length on average, but they can reach over 60 ft (18 m). They weigh over 100 metric tons. About one-fourth to one-third of a right whales total body length is the head. The lower jaw has a very pronounced curve and the upper jaw has 200Ã¢â¬â270 baleen plates, each narrow and between 2Ã¢â¬â2.8 meters long, with fine fringing hair.Ã Whales are born with patchy irregular spots, called callosities, on their faces, lower lips, and chin, above the eyes and around the blowholes. The callosities are made of keratinized tissue. By the time a whale is several months old, its callosities are inhabited by whale lice: small crustaceans who clean and eat algae off the whales body. Each whale has an estimated 7,500 whale lice. Habitat North Pacific right whales are among the most endangered whale species in the world. Two stocks are known to exist: western and eastern. The western North Pacific right whale lives in the Sea of Okhotsk and along the western Pacific rim; scientists estimate there are about 300 of them left. The eastern North Pacific right whales are found in the eastern Bering Sea. Their current population is believed to be between 25 and 50, which might be too small to ensure its persistence.Ã North Pacific right whales migrate seasonally. They travel northward in spring to high-latitude summer feeding grounds, and southward in fall for breeding and calving. In the past, these whales could be found from Japan and northern Mexico northward to the Sea of Okhotsk, the Bering Sea and the Gulf of Alaska; today, however, they are rare.Ã Diet North Pacific right whales are baleen whales, meaning that they use baleen (toothlike bone plates) to filter out their prey from sea water. They forage almost exclusively on zooplankton, tiny animals that are weak swimmers and prefer to drift with the current in massive groups. North Pacific right whales prefer large calanoid copepods- are crustaceans about the size of a grain of rice- but they will also eat krill and larval barnacles. They consume whatever gets picked up by the baleen.Ã Feeding takes place in the spring. In higher latitude feeding grounds, North Pacific right whales locate large surface patches of zooplankton, then swim slowly (about 3 miles per hour) through the patches with their mouths wide open. Each whale needs between 400,000 and 4.1 million calories each day, and when the patches are dense (about 15,000 copepods per cubic meter), whales can fulfill their daily needs in three hours. Less dense patches, around 3,600 per cm3, require a whale to spend 24 hours feeding in order to meet their caloric needs. The whales will not forage on densities below 3,000 per cm3.Ã Ã Although most of their visible feeding takes place near the surface, the whales can dive also deeply to forage (between 200Ã¢â¬â400 meters below the surface). Adaptationsand Behavior Scientists believe that right whales use a combination of memory, matrilineal teaching, and communication to navigate between feeding and wintering grounds.Ã They also use an array of tactics to find plankton concentrations, relying on water temperatures, currents, and stratification to locate new patches. Right whales produce a variety of low-frequency sounds described by researchers as screams, moans, groans, belches, and pulses. The sounds are high amplitude, meaning they are detectable across long distances, and most range below 500 Hz, and some as low as 1,500Ã¢â¬â2,000 Hz. Scientists believe that these vocalizations may be contact messages, social signals, warnings or threats.Ã Ã Throughout the year, right whales create surface active groups. In these groups, a lone female vocalizes a call; in response, up to 20 males surround her, vocalizing, leaping from the water, and splashing their flippers and flukes. There is little aggression or violence, nor are these behaviors necessarily connected with courtship routines. Whales only breed at certain times of the year, and females give birth in their wintering grounds nearly synchronously. Sources Gregr, Edward J., and Kenneth O. Coyle. The Biogeography of the North Pacific Right Whale (Eubalaena japonica). Progress in Oceanography 80.3 (2009): 188Ã¢â¬â98.Ã Kenney, Robert D. Are Right Whales Starving? Right Whale News 7.2 (2000).Ã -. Right Whales: Eubalaena . Encyclopedia of Marine Mammals (Third Edition). Eds. WÃ ¼rsig, Bernd, J. G. M. Thewissen and Kit M. Kovacs: Academic Press, 2018. 817Ã¢â¬â22.Ã glacialis, E. japonica, and E. australisÃ irovic, Ana, et al. North Pacific Right Whales (Eubalaena Japonica) Recorded in the Northeastern Pacific Ocean in 2013. Marine Mammal Science 31.2 (2015): 800Ã¢â¬â07.
Thursday, November 21, 2019
Background to the project management Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2250 words
Background to the project management - Essay Example The undertaking was a platform project since it was based on improving existing systems. The clinic previously utilized the traditional key system. From this undertaking, the project team will gain technical experience in improving the existing technologies. Technology dimension The project had a high tech level of technological uncertainty. The technology used in the project is generally well established. The required improvement is on a small scale and thus new features are limited. Project complexity The project in terms of complexity was under the system project since the used technology was new to the organization. Pace dimension The project was under the fast/ competitive level since it was an internal project of the organization whereby employees were required to have the keys on time to avoid locking other out. A delay in the project will inconvenience the hospital employees since some of them will be unable to access various rooms of the building. The project cycle was made up of three phases. During the initiation phase, the projectÃ¢â¬â¢s objectives were clearly outlined. The planning phase is the second stage. In this phase, the actions needed to ensure the project objectives are met were outlined. The last phase is the execution phase whereby the project commences. Due to these setbacks, the project failed or it was unsuccessful. I chose to investigate this situation primarily because it is the major reason why the project was unsuccessful. Thus, it is a vital aspect which had a great impact on the projectÃ¢â¬â¢s success.
Tuesday, November 19, 2019
Looking back over this quarter, what have you learned about one Essay
Looking back over this quarter, what have you learned about one particular adventist belief that is new to you, or is a significant addition to what you have thought previously - Essay Example Because of that, this class has certainly made me think about things in different ways, even if it did not really make me believe the same things that the Seventh Day Adventists do. One of the biggest and most obvious differences is the fact that those in the Adventist religion believe in the idea that Jesus Christ is the savior of humanity. Obviously, this is not a belief in Islam. Much like other Christian denominations, the Seventh Day Adventists believe that if you accept Christ as your savior, then you will be free from sin and able to go into heaven. By contrast, Islamic people believe that only Allah can free you from sin, and that you must genuinely repent and atone for your sins first. That means that in Islam each person is in charge of clearing himself from sin, and that it cannot be done by simply accepting a particular prophet as your I think there are some interesting things to say about both the Islamic and the Seventh Day Adventist beliefs about sin. For one thing, as a Muslim I am not sure that it is a very good idea to tell every single human being that they can be cleaned of sin simply by believing that the son of God has been punished for the sins that you commit. I think that it is much more helpful to society and to the world if, instead, every individual person has to properly and fully repent for the sins that they have committed before Allah (or God). That way, each person really thinks about what they have done thats wrong, and will truly feel sorry about it, so they are less likely to sin again. In Seventh Day Adventism, I would worry that people might not really repent from the sins they have committed, and this might mean that they would do the same thing again. On the other hand, the Seventh Day Adventist belief in Christ is like that of other Christian churches. They believe that while he is the son of God, he is also God himself. In this case, then, there is not much difference in having Christ
Saturday, November 16, 2019
The Empire In Transition Essay Example for Free
The Empire In Transition Essay 1. How did the relationship between the king and Parliament change during the early 18th century? During the early eighteenth century, the British Parliament established a growing supremacy over the King. The two German kings, George I and George II, were not used to English ways, and the Prime minister and his cabinet ministers became the nationÃ¢â¬â¢s real executives. They did not hold their control by the kingÃ¢â¬â¢s favor, but by their ability to control majority in Parliament. So during this time the king and parliament were still together in overseeing the colonies, but they had different roles in governing and controlling them. 2. How did British officials in the colonies carry out (or fail to carry out) their duties, and what was the effect of their activities? The British officials in the colonies failed to carry out their duties given to them. Some of these appointed officials wanted to raise their incomes with bribes. For example, customs collectors waived duties on goods when merchants paid them to do so. The activities carried out by the officials lead American society to corruption. 3. How was EnglandÃ¢â¬â¢s hold on the colonies weakened between 1700 and 1775? EnglandÃ¢â¬â¢s hold on the colonies weakened between 1700 and 1775 because the administration of colonial affairs remained decentralized and inefficient. There was no colonial office in London. There was a mere advisory body that had little role in any actual decisions. Real authority rested in the Privy Council, the admiralty, and the treasury, but these agencies were responsible for managing laws at home as well as overseas; no one could concentrate on colonial affairs alone. The character of the royal officials in America also weakened EnglandÃ¢â¬â¢s hold on the colonies because most of these officeholders were not able and intelligent. Appointments generally came as results of bribery or favoritism, not as a reward for distinction. 4. What factors helped promote colonial divisions during this period? The factors that helped promote colonial divisions during this period were growth of the colonial population, and the fact that the colonies were so far apart from each other that communication was rare between the colonies. 5. What was the Albany Plan, and what did it reveal about colonial unity? The Albany Plan was proposed by Benjamin Franklin, and this plan said that parliament would set up in America Ã¢â¬Å"one general governmentÃ¢â¬ for all the colonies. Each colony could have its own constitution, but would grant to the new general government powers like the authority to govern all relations with the Indians. The central government would have a Ã¢â¬Å"president generalÃ¢â¬ appointed and paid by the king and a legislature elected by colonial assemblies. The Struggle for the Continent (103-107) 6. How did the French attempt to secure their hold on the vast areas they claimed in North America? The French attempted to secure their vast areas by being the Indian allies. They told the Indians to attack the British. 7. What caused the Great War for empire, and why is called by that name? It was caused because the French and Indians were mad because the British got more land; therefore, the Indians and French wanted more land for them. It was called the great war of empire because the English had more land than the French and Indians. 8. How did the Great War for empire become a Ã¢â¬Å"truly international conflictÃ¢â¬ , and how did Britain carry out its part of the struggle? It became a truly international conflict because of the French and Great Britain having many fronts and having wars on many places it became an international conflict. 9. What were the terms of the Peace of Paris of 1763? The terms were that this treaty ended the seven years war, also known as the French and Indian war. the French also lost Canada, which was dominated by the British side. In order for Spain to recover Cuba they had to give up Florida. The French gave up most of the east of Mississippi except New Orleans. The New Imperialism (107-113) 10. What dilemma faced London policymakers at the end of the Great War for Empire? The dilemma that faced London policymakers was how to fund the British administration and how to defend the North American colonies in long term. 11. What arguments were raised for and against the post-1763 Ã¢â¬Å"territorial imperialismÃ¢â¬ ? How did this change British attitudes towards the colonies? After the American and French Revolutions the British were rendered speechless. The empire on which the sun had never set had fallen and faltered. They were virtually thrown out of America . They realized that they were not omnipotent and they began ruling with more of an iron hand policy. This resulted in worse conditions in the remaining colonies. 12. What initial policy changes occurred when George III ascended the throne, and what were the motives? George wanted to be in control of everything so removed WhigsÃ¢â¬â¢ who had previously governed empire for long time and replaced them with his own coalition that was very unstable 13. What was it about post-1763 British policy that caused colonists in every section to see the Disadvantages rather than the advantages of being part of the British Empire? The Proclamation of 1763 caused colonists in every section to see the disadvantages rather than the advantages of being part of the British Empire because it limited the colonists from western expansion beyond the Appalachian Mountains. From there, British started implementing taxes on the colonists to which the colonists did not agree. Stirrings of Revolt (113-121) 14. Why did the Stamp Act antagonize the American colonists so much? The Colonists were angered by the Stamp Act because they did not want to pay more taxes for other stamps. While Great Britain still needed to pay off the rest of their debt from the French and Indian War (Seven Years War) the Colonists had their own problems and wanted to be an independent country, they wanted to fend for themselves and not pay a tax. Stamp act imposed taxÃ on printed documents and was taxation without representation that they werenÃ¢â¬â¢t willing to pay. 15. Who sounded the Ã¢â¬Å"trumpet of seditionÃ¢â¬ in Virginia over the Stamp Act? Were there reasons other than those in the proposed resolutions? The Virginia House of Burgesses sounded the Ã¢â¬Å"trumpet of seditionÃ¢â¬ over the Stamp Act. The reason was to challenge the power of tidewater planters who dominated Virginia politics. 16. What role did Samuel Adams play in the American protests? Were his motives different from others? Samuel Adams was the leading figure in fomenting public outrage over the Boston Massacre. He was the most effective radical in the colonies. John AdamsÃ¢â¬â¢s motives were different from others because he viewed everything in stern moral terms, since he was a member of an earlier generation with strong ties to New EnglandÃ¢â¬â¢s Puritan past. 17. Why was the Tea Act seen by many Americans as a direct threat to themselves and their institutions? The Tea Act was seen by many Americans as a direct threat to themselves and their institutions because it meant that parliament had control over them instead of their own government. What were the Coercive Acts? How did the Quebec Act help unite the colonies with Boston in opposition to these acts? The Coercive Acts (known as the Intolerable Acts) were a group of acts that were passed to punish the colonists for the Boston Tea Party. These acts closed the port of Boston, reduced colonial self-government, allowed royal officers to be tried in other colonies or in England when accused of crimes, and provided for the quartering troops in the colonistsÃ¢â¬â¢ barns and empty houses. The Quebec Act helped unite the colonies with Boston in opposition to these acts because many people in the thirteen English colonies considered it a threat. The passage of the Quebec Act convinced some of the m that a plot was afoot in London to subject Americans to the tyranny of the pope. Cooperation and War (121-125) 19. What role was played by the committees of correspondence in the American protests? The Committees of Correspondence organized protests and performed additional political functions. 20. What were the five major decisions made at the First Continental Congress, and what was their significance? Five major decisions made by the first continental Congress where they rejected a plan for colonial union under British authority, endorsed a statement of grievances, they approved a series of resolutions, recommending that the colonists make military preparations for defense against possible attack by the British, they agreed to non importation, non exportation, and non-consumption as means of stopping all trade with Great Britain, and they formed a Ã¢â¬Å"Continental AssociationÃ¢â¬ to enforce the agreements, and they agreed to meet the next spring. These five major decisions indicated that the Continental Congress was considered a continuing organization. 21. What British leaders spoke out in support of the American cause, and what were their reasons for doing so? The Howe brothers supported the American cause. 22. What were the circumstances that led to the fighting at Lexington and Concord? Patterns of Popular Culture (120) The battle of Lexington and concord battle was caused by a set of riots led by the British. Their purpose was to take the weapons and powder in the communities surrounding Boston. 23. How and why did taverns become a central institution in colonial American social life? Taverns became a central institution in colonial American social life because taverns were the place where everyone (men) met to discuss any political issues. The taverns were also known as the Ã¢â¬Å"public housesÃ¢â¬ . 24. What circumstances and events helped make taverns central to political life as well? The revolutionary crisis made taverns and pubs become the central meeting places for discussions of the ideas that fueled resistance to British policies. There were also few other places where people could meet and talk openly in public. Almost all politicians found it necessary to visit taverns if they wanted any real contact with the public.
Thursday, November 14, 2019
Planning for Success :: Business Planning Plans
Planning for Success Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Planning is a key factor in the success of any business, and conversely, the failure to plan adequately is one of the fastest routes to business failure. There are many considerations that an entrepreneur must decide such as: type of business, legal structure, permits and licenses, market planning, business plan, location, organization management planning, business telephone line, mission statement, and a business checking account. There are many sources of information to help to start a business in an organized way, such as a business plan from the office of Economic Development & Planning located in the County Office Building, or books in that can be found in any library. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã The first decision that the entrepreneur must make is what type of business he/she wants to start. The decision should be based on the amount of knowledge and skill that they have in the field that they are considering. The better that they know the industry, the stronger there likelihood they will have a successful business, and the better base they will have for the rest of the decisions that will have to be made in the time to come. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã The next important decision in the business planning process is the legal structure of the company. The three legal structures are Sole-proprietorship, Partnership and a Corporation. Each one of these legal structures has its advantages and disadvantages. The different aspects that each legal structure differs are: management control, capital, liability, income taxes, business continuity, and government regulations. The understanding of these different issues is crucial to the decision of which structure is the best one for the entrepreneurs business. Be sure to consult an attorney before making this decision. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã In a sole-proprietorship, the owner retains total control of all the decisions that need to be made. The ability to raise capital is limited by the financial resources and the credit worthiness of the individual owner. The owner has the ultimate liability for all the actions and debts of the business. A sole-proprietorship is not a separate taxable entity. The individual owner reports business revenue, expenses and net income (or loss) on his/her individual tax return (form 1040). The business ends with death of owner unless previously sold or transferred. The government has very limited regulations, and few records are legally required. A D.B.A. (Doing Business As) form is available at most office supply stores or at a County Department of Economic Development office, which also requires a small fee. Planning for Success :: Business Planning Plans Planning for Success Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Planning is a key factor in the success of any business, and conversely, the failure to plan adequately is one of the fastest routes to business failure. There are many considerations that an entrepreneur must decide such as: type of business, legal structure, permits and licenses, market planning, business plan, location, organization management planning, business telephone line, mission statement, and a business checking account. There are many sources of information to help to start a business in an organized way, such as a business plan from the office of Economic Development & Planning located in the County Office Building, or books in that can be found in any library. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã The first decision that the entrepreneur must make is what type of business he/she wants to start. The decision should be based on the amount of knowledge and skill that they have in the field that they are considering. The better that they know the industry, the stronger there likelihood they will have a successful business, and the better base they will have for the rest of the decisions that will have to be made in the time to come. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã The next important decision in the business planning process is the legal structure of the company. The three legal structures are Sole-proprietorship, Partnership and a Corporation. Each one of these legal structures has its advantages and disadvantages. The different aspects that each legal structure differs are: management control, capital, liability, income taxes, business continuity, and government regulations. The understanding of these different issues is crucial to the decision of which structure is the best one for the entrepreneurs business. Be sure to consult an attorney before making this decision. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã In a sole-proprietorship, the owner retains total control of all the decisions that need to be made. The ability to raise capital is limited by the financial resources and the credit worthiness of the individual owner. The owner has the ultimate liability for all the actions and debts of the business. A sole-proprietorship is not a separate taxable entity. The individual owner reports business revenue, expenses and net income (or loss) on his/her individual tax return (form 1040). The business ends with death of owner unless previously sold or transferred. The government has very limited regulations, and few records are legally required. A D.B.A. (Doing Business As) form is available at most office supply stores or at a County Department of Economic Development office, which also requires a small fee.
Tuesday, November 12, 2019
Outdoor Advertising and Product Placement Essay
The media tools that we suggest for Anlene is outdoor advertising which is under the traditional media channel. Outdoor advertising is any advertisement that publicizes the product and services at outdoor. There are more than 40 types of outdoor advertising, with billboards being the most widely recognized media. Types of outdoor advertising include bus benches billboards, taxis, poster and so on. Billboard advertising is one of the most popular ways of advertising outdoors because it seems everyone notices those big billboards when they are driving, being a passenger in a car, or walking down the street. Billboard advertising can be large and spectacular, making passenger major attention getting device. Anlene can be choosing a specific and great geographic area can works well for promoting the product. It can target the potential peoples in particular area. It is a large billboard advertising that can found in highway, traffic area, city area and so on. If Anlene can build a billboard on a potential placement, it can catch peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s attention and create a memorable impression. After them leaving the billboard, they will recall back the advertisement that driven past it. Driver must pay attention to the traffic as they travel by the billboard. Anlene can choose some area which normally occur traffic jam. When people stuck in slow-moving traffic, they will spend more time to look at the billboard. Driver usually read the billboard while passed at high speed so it should have large and clear word print or arresting image in brilliant colour. Anlene can use clear and simple billboard so that it can easily bring an impression and message to viewer. Since a billboard stay in the same place for a period of a month or more, people who drive by or walk past, they will see the same billboard a number of times. Since the people who see the billboard of Anlene number of time, it wills quickly gaining the popularity of Anlene brand. As we know, the colour of Anlene is already created an impression for customer which is green and white. Therefore, the billboard of Anlene is using green and white colour so that when driver view by far away, they automatically can notice that the billboard advertising is Anlene. Anlene can have a creative and using colour to attract the viewer, it have more impact. Digital billboard also kind of outdoor advisement, it can show the creative and the colour of Anlene to catch attention of people. But digital billboard more likely have to build in traffic area, airport and some of the place that can take a few minutes to watch it. Billboard is a 24 hour exposure advertisement, it is more catch more attention of viewer than others media tools. Product placement The second media tools we suggest for Anlene is product placement which is under alternative marketing tools. Product placement is an advertising technique used by companies to promote their products through a non-traditional advertising technique, usually through appearances in film, television, or other media. Product placements are often initiated through an agreement between a product manufacturer and the media company in which the media company receives economic benefit. A company will often pay a fee to have their product used, displayed, or significantly featured in a movie or show. Anlene companies are trying to promoting their products in popular movies and television shows. These advertisements can be seen in popular films. Due to the major success of advertising in movies and TV shows, the marketers move on to the next level and started to use web videos, video games, music videos and other entertainment mediums. Product placement offers several advantages to manufacturers, producers and movie stars. It provided Anlen companies with an opportunity to be associated with famous actors and to use movie footage and stills to conveniently advertise the products. As it pertains to the producers and actors, they earned substantial amount in fees as well as the chance to endorse brands in various film. When a star uses a branded product in a film, thereÃ¢â¬â¢s an implied celebrity endorsement of that product. This can create a high level of awareness and a strong emotional connection to that product. A high profile star may draw more attention to Anlene product. It can change audiences purchase behaviours and creating favourable practitionersÃ¢â¬â¢ views on the brand. Product placement is and investment for brands that trying to reach audience. There are strong reasons for investors to expect that film product placement will increase consumer awareness of particular brand. Product placement can let people to recognize Anlene brand names that appeared in the movies. Anlene can place their product to fits with the image of film. When Anlene brand product placement is done well, it allows consumers to see the brand whether they watch their favourite film at home on television, by renting a DVD or online on their computer. The purpose is to achieving the audience exposure, attention and interest. It helps Anlene to increase their brand awareness and also make consumer create instant recognition in the media vehicle. High involvement is required to view a movie than for viewing television. A majority of movie watchers have a positive attitude toward this form of marketing communication, feeling it is preferable to commercials shown on the screen before the movie. More frequent viewers and they will enjoy movie more and pay more attention to product placement in the movie. Product and brands nowadays can expand into video games and even creating their own games. Active product placement in computer games can have positive effects. Anlene can exposure their product in a computer game can increase the brand attitude among consumers whose original attitude toward the brand is fairly low. Product placement within computer games has been found to be an effective mean of building high brand recall and even of influencing consumers less positively predisposed toward the brand.
Saturday, November 9, 2019
Case Study Ã¢â¬ Problem Employee
We often hear about the employers that donÃ¢â¬â¢t treat employees well; but you know, it sometimes works the other way as well. I had a call from a gentleman who was at his wits end as to what he could do with an employee that he has had on his payroll now for 5 years. This employee is running the entire show! HeÃ¢â¬â¢s a bully and the employer is to the point that he is actually afraid of him Ã¢â¬â not in a physical sense Ã¢â¬â but in the sense that heÃ¢â¬â¢s afraid to stand up to him because Ã¢â¬â oh no Ã¢â¬â heaven forbid Ã¢â¬â he may quit! The employer has completely lost control of this fellow because he never had the courage to set any boundaries or expectations from the start and his leadership has been extremely inconsistent. So, how did this happen, you may ask? The background: The business owner has a small restaurant. He and his wife and brother-in-law opened the restaurant about 7 years ago. The business started to grow and he brought in the employee in question to help them out. At first, the employee was really good and the owner gave him more and more responsibilities, to the point that he felt fairly comfortable in leaving him to open up on occasion and actually assist with the business decisions, etc. The business continued to grow and he hired a few more people, mostly part time, to work during lunch and dinner times. After a few more employees were hired, the original employee (weÃ¢â¬â¢ll call him Joe), started to exhibit some less than desirable behaviours by coming in late; opening the doors and then within 15 minutes, he would go out back to have a smoke break (virtually leaving the business open without anyone inside, which the owner found out by coming in a couple of mornings right after Joe and finding the place empty); talking on his cell phone right in front of customers (putting the customers on ignore while he chatted away on the phone); and when the owner tried to speak with him, Joe just held his hand up right in the ownerÃ¢â¬â¢s face shutting him down. On occasion, when Joe decided heÃ¢â¬â¢d made enough tips for the night Ã¢â¬â he would just leave Ã¢â¬â an hour Ã¢â¬â sometimes two hours before his shift actually ended! To heck with the scheduleÃ¢â¬ ¦ heÃ¢â¬â¢d had enoughÃ¢â¬ ¦too badÃ¢â¬ ¦so sad. Oh Ã¢â¬â and he didnÃ¢â¬â¢t like the ownerÃ¢â¬â¢s wife Ã¢â¬â so he told the owner to keep her out of the restaurant Ã¢â¬â and he did! It has now gotten to the point (according to the employer) that Joe comes and goes as he pleases and in fact, he has told the employer that he canÃ¢â¬â¢t do anything about it because heÃ¢â¬â¢d have to pay him to terminate him. The employer, unfortunately, does not know his rights in this case Ã¢â¬â and he has let it go on for so long now that he is getting treated this way by all of his employees. The example has been set! The saddest part of all is that the employee tells the employer what he will and will not do and the employer has no one else that can step into this fellowÃ¢â¬â¢s shoes because everyone else is part time and does not have the same level of restaurant business experience. At least, thatÃ¢â¬â¢s what the owner believes at this time. So; how did we go about finding a solution to this problem when up to this point in time nothing was documented?Case Study Ã¢â¬â Problem Employee Ã¢â¬â Part 2 Published: November 1, 2010 The first thing we recommended to this employer was to take a good look at his current employees and consider which ones he could provide more training and development to so that if this problem employee did walk out; he could still manage his business. We also advised him that allowing others to develop their skills would not only increase his ability to provide a better quality business for his customers, it would also provide learning opportunities for his employees that would encourage them to stay. The next thing we did for this employer was to give him information around the basic employment standards act that he needed. He was allowing an employee to tell him what was required by law, and in fact; most of what he was being told was inaccurate. Ignorance is definitely not bliss for a business owner who employs others. We gave him Ã¢â¬Å"fact sheetsÃ¢â¬ with the main areas that he should make himself familiar with so that it was easy to understand and didnÃ¢â¬â¢t have a lot of unfamiliar language to interpret. The next thing we recommended is that he considers doing is allowing us to develop an employee handbook and some basic policies that would help him in communicating to his employees moving forward. We recommended that he have a staff meeting prior to the construction of the handbook to allow the employees to have some input or suggestions. We offered to provide support at the staff meeting if he wished; but certainly this is something that he could do on his own as well. We offered to present the handbook to the employees with him so that we could respond to any questions and he didnÃ¢â¬â¢t have to feel concerned about how to respond (particularly because he believes the problem employee is going to challenge the implementation of a handbook and policies). We next suggested that he implement a performance management system that aligned with the handbook and policies and we will assist him through coaching sessions as to how he can manage the process. While this is a lot of work for him and it will not be an overnight solution; he has unfortunately allowed his employee to gain control of his business Ã¢â¬â and not in a good way. Due to the fact that he has not managed the whole relationship well and it has deteriorated to this stage, it will be a long process to repair the damage. The good thing is that he did seek help and he will learn how to retain employees through the provision of learning opportunities; he will have some Ã¢â¬Ëstandards of operation and behavioural expectationsÃ¢â¬â¢; and he will have a performance management system to ensure a more fair and just working environment. Last, but not least; we are also going to provide some Ã¢â¬Ëculture coachingÃ¢â¬â¢ sessions so he can develop a strong and healthy workplace that fits within his mission and values. As this project is not yet complete, we will report back on occasion to let you know how we move through the recommended processes.
Thursday, November 7, 2019
Relationship Between Law of Demand and Supply and National Minimum Wage The WritePass Journal
Relationship Between Law of Demand and Supply and National Minimum Wage Introduction Relationship Between Law of Demand and Supply and National Minimum Wage IntroductionThe Law of DemandThe Law of SupplyEquilibriumNational Minimum WagesHistory Ã¢â¬â UKÃ¢â¬â¢s Minimum WagesMain principles to highlight the Ã¢â¬ËNational Minimum WagesÃ¢â¬â¢:Arguments in favour of Ã¢â¬ËNational Minimum WagesÃ¢â¬â¢Potential Economic and Social BenefitsHigher tax revenuesReduction in labour turnoverÃ References:-Related Introduction Supply and demand are one of the basic models of economics and they are main characters of a financial system. Demand means how much quantity of the service or product customer is willing to buy. At constant factors, price of the product increases or decreases as its demand increases or decreases respectively. While supply means the quantity of services or goods, producers willing to supply to consumer at certain price. At constant factors, quantity of products supplied increases as price of the product increased. The Law of Demand According to the Ã¢â¬ËLaw of DemandÃ¢â¬â¢, Ã¢â¬Å"Higher the price of the product results in less demand as less people wants to buy it, at the constant factors.Ã¢â¬ Graphically we can present the Law of Demand as below, In figure 1, A, B and C are points on the demand curve. Every point on the curve shows a direct relationship between amounts of the products demanded (Q) and price (P). So, at point A, the quantity demand will be Q1 and the price will be P1, and so on. The demand relationship curve shows the negative relationship between price and quantity demanded. The higher the price of a good the lower the quantity demanded (A), and the lower the price, the moreÃ the good will be in demandÃ (C). The Law of Supply According to the Ã¢â¬ËLaw of SupplyÃ¢â¬â¢, Ã¢â¬Å"Higher the price of the product results in high supply of the quantity of the product.Ã¢â¬ Ã Because higher supply of the product at high price the revenue is maximum. Graphically we can present the Law of Supply as below, Figure 2: The Law of Supply In figure 2, A, B and C are points on the supply curve. Every point on the curve shows a direct relation between quantity supplied (Q) and price (P). At point B, the quantity supplied will be Q2 and the price will be P2, and so on. Equilibrium It is the point, at which quantity demanded and supply of the goods are same or equal. At equilibrium distribution of products is more effective because amount of the product supplied is exactly the same as the quantity of the product demanded. Graphically we can present the Equilibrium condition as below, Figure 3: Equilibrium At the point of intersection of the supply and demand curve equilibrium takes place. At this point, the price of the goods will be P* and the quantity will be Q*. This figure is referred to as equilibrium price and quantity. National Minimum Wages A minimum wage is the least monthly, daily or hourly that employers should pay legally to the employees. Workers in Britain were sheltered for the first time on the last nine months of 20th century by Ã¢â¬ËNational Minimum WagesÃ¢â¬â¢. With the intention of the recommendation to the rate of Ã¢â¬ËNational Minimum WagesÃ¢â¬â¢ in 1997 the Ã¢â¬ËLow Pay CommissionÃ¢â¬â¢ was established. Low Pay Commission isÃ a kind of social partnership made up of three employer representatives, three worker representatives and three independent members, whose suggestions have been always agreed and government has always executed the suggested National Minimum Wages. National Minimum Wages has been restructured seven times, since April 1999. History Ã¢â¬â UKÃ¢â¬â¢s Minimum Wages In 1909Ã wages had always been synchronized by borough, but in 1909 the Ã¢â¬ËLiberal governments Trade Boards ActÃ¢â¬â¢Ã formed the first national system of wage law. The act made fourÃ¢â¬â¢ Trade BoardsÃ¢â¬â¢ that set minimum wages which were different in different industries. In 1945 after the war, the Trade Boards, which is now well-known as Wages Councils broaden their power. Previously only relevant to industries where communal bargaining was weak,Ã they were now broader in scope. In 1986Ã the Wage Council system had grown-up during the mid 20th century, in 1980s there wereÃ 26 councils, covering 2 million workforces, primarily in low paid jobs like trade. In 1986 the Conservative government decreases the influence of the councils and prevents new ones from being starting, with the Wages Act. In 1993Ã wage Councils areÃ eliminated, due to resistance from trade unions, who favoured to practice group bargaining. In 1998Ã Ã¢â¬ËThe Labour governmentÃ¢â¬â¢Ã established Ã¢â¬ËThe National Minimum Wage ActÃ¢â¬â¢. Trade unions, which in 1979 had characterized 55% of the employees, had been able of bargaining wages by group bargaining.Ã But in 1999 less than one in four employees were unionised, and a national solution was projected. The policy is resisted by Conservatives. In 1999Ã Ã¢â¬ËThe national minimum wageÃ¢â¬â¢ executed. Ã¢â¬ËThe Low Pay CommissionÃ¢â¬â¢ judges the best rate to beÃ Ã £3.60 an hour for labours who are 22 and above. In 2009Ã Conservative backbencher Christopher puts forward a private members bill that suggested allowing workers toÃ optimum output of the minimum wage In 2010Ã on 1st October 2010 the wagesÃ increasedÃ to Ã £5.93, and the age at which meet the criteria for the top rate becomes 21 for the first time. A minimum wage for apprentices is also established, at Ã £2.50 per hour. Main principles to highlight the Ã¢â¬ËNational Minimum WagesÃ¢â¬â¢: It must be Ã¢â¬Å"enough to permit labours to sustain in vigorous existence. Hence, the wage must be designed on what the employees need for physical health and competence, and not what the trade will standÃ¢â¬ . The Ã¢â¬Å"law have to be national, that is it should apply to the entire countryÃ¢â¬ . It is to be a Ã¢â¬Å"nationwide least of real wages that worked out in its cash comparable will balance all local disparity in cost of livelihoodÃ¢â¬ Arguments in favour of Ã¢â¬ËNational Minimum WagesÃ¢â¬â¢ The primary aim of National Minimum Wages is to decrease poverty and decrease the differences in pay. Another intention of National Minimum Wages is to cut the misuse of low paid labours. Potential Economic and Social Benefits Higher tax revenues Due to increase in the wages of low salaried jobs ,income tax and national insurance contribution is increased. State benefits would cost less Benefits like income support and benefits in council tax will be required less. A reasonable distribution of income across the people The primary reason of poverty contributes to increasing crimes. Argument is able to provide the employees reasonable pay for their work. Increasing productivity of labour Firms will have an inducement to lift theÃ yieldÃ of workforce if they pay the minimum wage. This will lead to better investment in theÃ human capital. Reduction in labour turnoverÃ Increased salary can decrease the labour turnover and rate of absence and can lead to motivate the labours to work to improve efficiency and reducing the expenses on turnover of employees. Potential earnings from the Ã¢â¬ËNational Minimum WagesÃ¢â¬â¢ Figure 4: Potential earnings from the Ã¢â¬ËNational Minimum WagesÃ¢â¬â¢ The National Minimum Wages in the figure 4 is put over the standard free market wage rate for a given job. Total employment reduced from point E1 to point E2 (expressing a loss of income for those who lost the jobs). At point E2, there is an increase in the income of those who stay in work. Ã Arguments against of Ã¢â¬ËNational Minimum WagesÃ¢â¬â¢ Increase in marginal cost of employment A National Minimum Wages put higher than the free-market wage for certain groups lifts the marginal cost of employing workers. So organisations will reduceÃ jobs, cut downÃ the hours of work and unemployment will increase. Pay leap-frogging Other labours will demand more wages to maintain differentials in pay, which will result in cost-push inflation and adversely affect the competitiveness of UK producers in terms of price in international market. Increased unemployment Low-skilled labours and young persons will be replaced by experienced older labours resulting into increase in unemployment. Cost of training Some organisations will try to cut the cost on training of employees because of falling rate of profit. Distortionary effect A National Minimum Wages does not take into consideration local disparity in cost of living and will result in distortionary effect in Ã the UK labour market. The impact of a minimum wage on employment Figure 5: The impact of a minimum wage on demand and supply of labours The impact of a minimum wage on employment points depends in part on the Ã¢â¬Ëelasticity of demandÃ¢â¬â¢ and Ã¢â¬Ëelasticity of supplyÃ¢â¬â¢ of employment in dissimilar businesses. If workforce demand is comparatively inelastic then the narrowing in employment will be less harsh than if employers demand for workers is elastic with respect to changes in the income level. Effect of the National Minimum Wage in Industries According to, a report of Ã¢â¬ËThe Confederation of British Industry, (CBI) which gave the capable support to the National Minimum Wage, some key issues were as given below: There are not much evidences showing major impact on employment or unemployment. There are no visible errors upwards in typical earnings. There are some impacts of the National Minimum Wage on wage differentials directing towards the higher rates for workers. But it is only applies to thirteen percents of organisations. Exemption of under eighteen year olds from any minimum wage has been proven as useful for employers. To balance the cost of the minimum wage, some organisations have adopted work practices by making staff multi- skilled in their job. References:- britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/156920/demand-curve britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/574671/supply-curve http://wrap.warwick.ac.uk/1560/1/WRAP_Stewart_twerp630.pdf totalpolitics.com/blog/28013/history-of-the-uk-s-minimum-wage.thtml lowpay.gov.uk/lowpay/report/pdf/Revised_Report_PDF_with_April_date.PDF direct.gov.uk/en/Employment/Employees/TheNationalMinimumWage/DG_10027201 investopedia.com/university/economics/economics3.asp investopedia.com/terms/d/demand.asp investopedia.com/terms/s/supply.asp hmrc.gov.uk/paye/payroll/day-to-day/nmw.htmÃ http://tutor2u.net/economics/content/topics/poverty/minwage_for.htm http://tutor2u.net/economics/content/topics/poverty/minwage_against.htm
Tuesday, November 5, 2019
Tips for Treating Titles of People
Tips for Treating Titles of People Tips for Treating Titles of People Tips for Treating Titles of People By Mark Nichol Civil titles (Mr., Mrs., and Ms.) have become largely archaic and superfluous in written communication, and Dr. is usually unnecessary, too and, in the case of someone who earned a doctorate, is often seen as a disingenuous affectation. (When necessary, follow the personÃ¢â¬â¢s name with PhD instead). A doctor with a medical degree is better identified by a brief reference to his or her specialty or the specific medical degree earned (Ã¢â¬Å"cardiologist Thomas JohnsonÃ¢â¬ or Ã¢â¬Å"Thomas Johnson, MDÃ¢â¬ ). Even in fiction, civil titles are of questionable value except in dialogue or in a narrative reference for example, when conversationally referring to the town general practitioner in a novel with a rural setting. People with professional titles by virtue of affiliation with politics, education, religion, the military, and such may be identified as such on first reference (Ã¢â¬Å"President Linda Thompson,Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Professor John OÃ¢â¬â¢Brien,Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Reverend Andrew Morris,Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Captain Jane LongÃ¢â¬ ), but, as with civil titles, thereÃ¢â¬â¢s no reason to subsequently use the title before the name, unless, like the rural doctor, the person is a character being mentioned or hailed in a story. Most titles have an abbreviated form, but though these are commonly used in journalistic contexts, theyÃ¢â¬â¢re generally unnecessary (except, perhaps, when space is at a minimum, such as in a table with narrow columns). Military abbreviations consist of all capital letters, but references in civilian contexts need not follow suit. In the case of members of legislative bodies, it is sometimes necessary to identify the level of office, such as when mentioning politicians from various countries or comparing state and federal governance. In such cases, Senator James Smith should be referred to as Ã¢â¬Å"US senator James SmithÃ¢â¬ ; note how senator is lowercased because it is now part of the epithet Ã¢â¬Å"US senatorÃ¢â¬ and is not an official title. This transformation is also applicable when referring to, for example, Ã¢â¬Å"state senator Mary JonesÃ¢â¬ or Ã¢â¬Å"California senator Mary Jones,Ã¢â¬ even though, under different circumstances, she would be identified simply as Ã¢â¬Å"Senator Mary Jones.Ã¢â¬ This style variation should be used consistently in a given publication but need not be maintained in every issue of a periodical or every update to a Web site, unless itÃ¢â¬â¢s necessary to do so to perpetuate the distinction. Ultimately, when deciding whether to precede names with titles, let common sense be your guide; it is a courtesy to include them on first reference, but it is superfluous do so in every instance. Want to improve your English in five minutes a day? Get a subscription and start receiving our writing tips and exercises daily! Keep learning! Browse the Style category, check our popular posts, or choose a related post below:Grammar Test 17 Patterns of Sentence StructureTreatment of Words That Include Ã¢â¬Å"SelfÃ¢â¬
Sunday, November 3, 2019
Occupy Wall Street Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words
Occupy Wall Street - Essay Example the 1%) has been challenged by the widespread Occupy movement, causing a social disruption. This presents a climate of tension that serves as an opportunity for Apple to capitalize on the dissenting market by altering their brand strategy to gain an appropriate association with the new ideology. The current electronic rebel/technologically superior image of the company is almost ideal for the current climate, but the company will need to identify directly with the movement or face being placed in the unpopular Ã¢â¬Å"big businessÃ¢â¬ category. AppleÃ¢â¬â¢s offerings are already linked with the youth/pop culture through their current strategy, so they may promote their part in contributing to the development by making communication more accessible. This approach would be utilizing a media myth (that electronic devices make communication easier to use and obtain) as well brand assets. The Apple brand is also well connected to the notion of deviance by way of another myth. Using AppleÃ¢â¬â¢s products was once considered a very rare occurrence, and they have managed to continue this rebel image throughout their immense success. Identifying the brand with rebellion offers the company another direct path to connecting with the Occupy movement by building from a myth and already established company resources. In the end, the Occupy movement may prove to be less impacting that originally assessed, and companies may be faced with the consequences of any major changes to brand strategies that took place solely because of the event. Since they theoretically do not have to change a lot, AppleÃ¢â¬â¢s current brand strategies have the company well positioned to capitalize on the popularity of the movement while absorbing little to no loss should the Occupy phenomenon fizzle in
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